20th Century / Irish Heritage / The Abbey Loop / Timeline

Hydro Power on the River Bonet

turbine

In full winter flow, the River Bonet below Creevelea Abbey reveals its formidable power as it descends towards Lough Gill, with it’s white water rapids over the underlying limestone providing exciting sport for kayak clubs. As the water level drops, the remains of a hydro electric turbine can be seen .

Irish Water power, 7th century.

In Ireland, the history of harnessing the power of  water is believed to date back as far as the 1st century CE , with one early european example of a horizontal mill (635) being found in Offaly . Locally at the falls at Ballisodare  there was a monastery of St.Fechin of Sligo. He is recorded as taking pity on the monks laboriously hand grinding corn at Fore , Westmeath and building a water powered mill.

” …  Giraldus Cambrensis in 1187 writes :” There is a mill at Fore, which St. Fechin made most miraculously with his own hands in the side of a certain rock ;” and in regard to the water supply we read in the Life of Saint Mochua …….. that ” Mochua came to Fore, a town of Meath, in which Fechin had erected a mill at the foot of a mountain, without having any water near ; and as nothing was now wanting but the water, the mill being finished in other respects, the two saints set out for Lough Lene, which was two miles away. Arrived at the lake, Mochua makes a hole with the point of a staff in the bank that lay next to the mill ; Fechin and the priests that accompanied him did the same ; and, on the moment, the water passing in a wonderful manner under ground through the mountain, dashed out not far from the mill, and, falling on the wheel with great force, set the mill a-going.”….”

Extensive research has revealed an early 629 AD monastic tide mill in Nendrum, County Antrim , with 2 tide barriers, an earlier and more efficient later one still surviving, and even timbers and mill stones were  recently rediscovered. Other research investigates monastic hydro technology, disproving an assumption that Norman influence and later Cistercian orders were the first to introduce water powered milling.

Tide Mill

Dromahair Abbey Mill

In Dromahair the river can be seen to have been diverted in two places. Traces of an early mill race fed  from the Bonet may be seen in the wooded walk from the village towards Creevelea Abbey , passing now near the gable end of the ruin below the Abbey , designated as a ‘Wash Mill’ in older maps which also show a weir leading to the mill race. Wash Mills are described as places where hides or clay materials are washed, which is interesting as a scriptorium is outlined in the plan of Creevelea Abbey – calf hides would have been used in books . Whether water power was harnessed here in the time of the Franciscans is not clear but it is well established,as above, that monastic settlements pioneered water power systems much earlier.

Abbey Mill 1

This photograph in the National Library, is dated 1858, the earliest known for Dromahair. It shows the ‘wash mill’ ( see 1837 map) below Creevelea Abbey  . Interesting details are the whitewashed gable with low level opening possibly for the mill wheel shaft , an arch can be seen in the near gable of the (now demolished) building on the  right and also the narrow slit openings, indicating old architectural detail. Not far to the left, ,out of image there is still a restored cottage and a well which was used at least by an older man, Mr Gorman until the 1980’s .

Professional opinion suggests this building complex may even predate Creevelea Abbey , a number of simple ‘roman’ arches in the structure would help support this as the later gothic arches are used in the Abbey itself .

Abbey Mill 2 1837

The later diversion on the opposite river bank leads to the Mill, now the workshops of the Board of  Works. The formidable ancestors of Yeats, the Pollexfens and Middletons were once proprieters here, having ships as well as mills in Ballisodare and  Westport.

Twentieth century electric turbine.

Although the newly formed Irish government initiated the first state owned Electricity Supply Board in 1927, and its 85 mw Hydro electric Ardnacrusha plant on the River  Shannon was commissioned in 1929, many small towns were not connected for many years. Leitrim had electricity before the establishment of ESB in 1927. The ESB’s annual reports record 9 local electricity suppliers in Leitrim county, as seen here

The Jeiter family initiated the hydro electric system a little while later on the River Bonet in 1933. They were also owners of the Abbey Hotel. The village benefited greatly from their enterprise, even building later an open air swimming pool which is said to have been heated , the enclosure of which can be seen today. Also at low water opposite , one component is still visible, perhaps the flow regulator attached to its shaft and on the banks of the river can be seen the remains of the propellor part of the generator.

turbineS

1200px-Water_turbine_(en_2).svgPaul Jeiter began to supply electricity in Dromahair in 1933, initially serving 26 homes and businesses . In the ESB 1950 annual accounts, it is reported that Paul Jeiter had 50 customers with a village population then of 275 inhabitants. By 1960 he had 60 customers , when his business was acquired by ESB.

Joseph Jeiter advertised in the 1935 Irish Travel Gazette, ‘Electric light and Electric fires in each bedroom’ of his Abbey Hotel.

Hotel Travel

With the advent of the ESB supply to the village, a time came when he was no longer accepting new customers, attested by one Dromahair resident who had enquired about being connected in time for the birth of her first child. Happily, the ESB connection was enabled just in time.

Waterpower

ESB.jpg

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